Find both on AP Biology header for now.

Introduction to Statistics Powerpoint seahorses also. oh no.

Trichomes and Statistics (Dog SD is on this one) well, supposed to be. seahorses right now. I'll fix at work.

Introduction to Statistics Powerpoint seahorses also. oh no.

Trichomes and Statistics (Dog SD is on this one) well, supposed to be. seahorses right now. I'll fix at work.

## Vocabulary

Statistics is the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, summarize, analyze, and draw conclusions from data.
Descriptive statistics consists of the collection, organization, summarization, and presentation of data. Inferential statistics consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing estimations and hypothesis tests, determining relationships among variables, and making predictions. Probability: the chance of the event occurring. Use in inferential statistics. A population consists of all subjects (human or otherwise) that are being studied. A sample is a group of subjects selected from a population. Discrete variables assume values that can be counted. Continuous variables can assume an infinite number of values between any two specific values. They are obtained by measuring. They often include fractions and decimals. z value or z score: actually the number of standard deviations that a particular X value is away from the mean. t-distribution; Student's t distribution; t-test. Bell-shaped; the variance is greater than 1; It is a family of curves based on degrees of freedom. When standard deviation is known and sample size 30 or more, or normal distribution less than 30, CI can be found by using z distribution. If standard deviation is not known, and has to be estimated (the standard deviation of the sample) Values to keep CI at 95% come from t distribution. Degrees of freedom: the number of values that are free to vary after a sample statistic has been computed. Chi-Square distribution: Calculates confidence intervals for variances and standard deviations are necessary. Similar to t-test, based on curves of degrees of freedom. P-value (or probability value) is the probability of getting a sample statistic (such as the mean) or a more extreme sample statistic in the direction of the alternative hypothesis when the null hypothesis is true. Parametric tests are statistical tests for population parameters such as means, variances, and proportions that involve assumptions about the populations from which the samples were selected. Non-parametric - population from which the samples that selected are not normally distributed. |
The independent variable in an experimental study is the one that is being manipulated by the researcher.
The dependent variable is the resultant variable or the "outcome" variable. The treatment group receives special instructions. The control group does not. Class: A quantitative or qualitative category. Frequency: Number of data values contained in a specific class. Frequency distribution: the organization of raw data in table form, using classes and frequencies. Histogram: a graph that displays the data by using contiguous vertical bars of various heights to represents the frequencies of the classes.
Point estimate: a specific numerical value estimate of a parameter.
Parameter: a characteristic or measure obtained by using all the data values for a specific population. The best point estimate of the population mean is the same mean. Interval estimate of a parameter: is an interval or a range of values used to estimate the parameter. This estimate may or may not contain the value of the parameter being estimated. Confidence Level of an interval estimate of a parameter is the probability that the interval estimate will contain the parameter, assuming that a large number of samples are selected and that the estimation process on the same parameter is repeated. Confidence interval of a specific interval estimate of a parameter determined by using data from a sample and by using the specific confidence level of the estimate. PROCEDURE FOR HYPOTHESIS TESTING: 1. STATE THE HYPOTHESES. 2. COMPUTE THE TEST. 3. FIND THE P-VALUE 4. MAKE THE DECISION. 5. SUMMARIZE THE RESULTS IF P>0.05 DO NOT REJECT THE NULL IF P<0.05 REJECT THE NULL |
Mean: the sum of the values divided by the total of the values. symbol X with a line over it.
Median is the midpoint of the data array. The symbol is MD. Mode: The value that occurs most often in a data set. Range: the highest value minus the lowest value. X = individual value micro symbol = population mean N = population size. variance: standard deviation squared. Standard deviation: square root of the variance. Variance is the average of the squares of the distance each value is from the mean. Outlier: An extremely high or an extremely low data value when compared with the rest of the data values. Probability: the chance of an event occurring. normal distribution: a continuous, symmetric Null hypothesis: H0 is a statistical hypothesis that states that there is no difference between a parameter and a specific value, or that there is no difference between two parameters. Alternate hypothesis: H1 is a statistical hypothesis that states the existence of a difference between a parameter and a specific value, or states that there is a difference between two parameters. (sometimes called a research hypothesis) statistical test: used the data obtained from a sample to make a decision about whether the null hypothesis should be rejected. test value: the numerical value obtained from a statistical test. Level of significance is the maximum probability of committing a type I error (rejecting the null when it is true) symbol greek letter alpha. Critical value separates the critical region from the non-critical region. CV two -tailed test: if test value is in either of the two critical regions |